Ruby Case Statement Assignment Satisfaction

 

RUBY USER'S GUIDE

(This is my visual rendering of a tutorilal originally located here. The present version is better suited for searching and printing.
Meanwhile, the original maintainer prepared yet another rendering of the same text)

 

Table of contents

What is ruby? • Getting Started • Simple examples • Strings • Regular expressions • Arrays • Back to the simple examples • Control structures • Iterators • Object-oriented thinking • Methods • Classes • Inheritance • Redefinition of methods • Access control • Singleton methods • Modules • Procedure objects • Variables • Global variables • Instance variables • Local variables • Class constants • Exception processing: rescue • Exception processing: ensure • Accessors • Object initialization • Nuts and bolts

What is ruby?

Ruby is "an interpreted scripting language for quick and easy object-oriented programming"; what does this mean?

interpreted scripting language:

  • ability to make operating system calls directly
  • powerful string operations and regular expressions
  • immediate feedback during development

quick and easy:

  • variable declarations are unnecessary
  • variables are not typed
  • syntax is simple and consistent
  • memory management is automatic

object oriented programming:

  • everything is an object
  • classes, inheritance, methods, etc.
  • singleton methods
  • mixin by module
  • iterators and closures

also:

  • multiple precision integers
  • exception processing model
  • dynamic loading
  • threads

If you are unfamiliar with some of the concepts above, read on, and don't worry. The mantra of the ruby language is quick and easy.

Getting Started

First, you'll want to check whether ruby is installed. From the shell prompt (denoted here by "", so don't type the ), type

( tells the interpreter to print the version of ruby), then press the Enter key. If ruby is installed, you will see a message something like the following:

% ruby -v ruby 1.6.6 (2001-12-26) [i586-linux]

If ruby is not installed, you can ask your administrator to install it, or you can do it yourself, since ruby is free software with no restrictions on its installation or use.

Now, let's play with ruby. You can place a ruby program directly on the command line using the option:

% ruby -e 'print "hello world\n"' hello world

More conventionally, a ruby program can be stored in a file.

% cat > test.rb print "hello world\n" ^D % cat test.rb print "hello world\n" % ruby test.rb hello world

is control-D. The above is just for UNIX. If you're using DOS, try this:

C:\ruby> copy con: test.rb print "hello world\n" ^Z C:\ruby> type test.rb print "hello world\n" C:\ruby> ruby test.rb hello world

When writing more substantial code than this, you will want to use a real text editor!

Some surprisingly complex and useful things can be done with miniature programs that fit in a command line. For example, this one replaces with in all C source and header files in the current working directory, backing up the original files with ".bak" appended:

% ruby -i.bak -pe 'sub "foo", "bar"' *.[ch]

This program works like the UNIX command (but works slower than ):

Simple examples

Let's write a function to compute factorials. The mathematical definition of factorial is:

n! = 1 (when n==0) = n * (n-1)! (otherwise)

In ruby, this can be written as:

def fact(n) if n == 0 1 else n * fact(n-1) end end

You may notice the repeated occurrence of . Ruby has been called "Algol-like" because of this. (Actually, the syntax of ruby more closely mimics that of a langage named Eiffel.) You may also notice the lack of a statement. It is unneeded because a ruby function returns the last thing that was evaluated in it. Use of a statement here is permissible but unnecessary.

Let's try out our factorial function. Adding one line of code gives us a working program:

# Program to find the factorial of a number # Save this as fact.rb def fact(n) if n == 0 1 else n * fact(n-1) end end print fact(ARGV[0].to_i), "\n"

Here, is an array which contains the command line arguments, and converts a character string to an integer.

% ruby fact.rb 1 1 % ruby fact.rb 5 120

Does it work with an argument of 40? It would make your calculator overflow...

% ruby fact.rb 40 815915283247897734345611269596115894272000000000

It does work. Indeed, ruby can deal with any integer which is allowed by your machine's memory. So 400! can be calculated:

% ruby fact.rb 400 64034522846623895262347970319503005850702583026002959458684 44594280239716918683143627847864746326467629435057503585681 08482981628835174352289619886468029979373416541508381624264 61942352307046244325015114448670890662773914918117331955996 44070954967134529047702032243491121079759328079510154537266 72516278778900093497637657103263503315339653498683868313393 52024373788157786791506311858702618270169819740062983025308 59129834616227230455833952075961150530223608681043329725519 48526744322324386699484224042325998055516106359423769613992 31917134063858996537970147827206606320217379472010321356624 61380907794230459736069956759583609615871512991382228657857 95493616176544804532220078258184008484364155912294542753848 03558374518022675900061399560145595206127211192918105032491 00800000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000

We cannot check the correctness at a glance, but it must be right. :-)

The input/evaluation loop

When you invoke ruby with no arguments, it reads commands from standard input and executes them after the end of input:

% ruby print "hello world\n" print "good-bye world\n" ^D hello world good-bye world

Ruby also comes with a program called that allows you to enter ruby code from the keyboard in an interactive loop, showing you the results as you go. It will be used extensively through the rest of the tutorial.

If you have an ANSI-compliant terminal (this is almost certainly true if you are running some flavor of UNIX; under DOS you need to have installed or ), you should use this enhanced that adds visual indenting assistance, warning reports, and color highlighting. Otherwise, look in the subdirectory of the ruby distribution for the non-ANSI version that works on any terminal. Here is a short session:

% ruby eval.rb ruby> print "Hello, world.\n" Hello, world. nil ruby> exit

is produced by . The next line, in this case , reports on whatever was last evaluated; ruby does not distinguish between statements and expressions, so evaluating a piece of code basically means the same thing as executing it. Here, indicates that does not return a meaningful value. Note that we can leave this interpreter loop by saying , although still works too.

Throughout this guide, "" denotes the input prompt for our useful little program.

Strings

Ruby deals with strings as well as numerical data. A string may be double-quoted ("...") or single-quoted ('...').

ruby> "abc" "abc" ruby> 'abc' "abc"

Double- and single-quoting have different effects in some cases. A double-quoted string allows character escapes by a leading backslash, and the evaluation of embedded expressions using . A single-quoted string does not do this interpreting; what you see is what you get. Examples:

ruby> print "a\nb\nc","\n" a b c nil ruby> print 'a\nb\n',"\n" a\nb\nc nil ruby> "\n" "\n" ruby> '\n' "\\n" ruby> "\001" "\001" ruby> '\001' "\\001" ruby> "abcd #{5*3} efg" "abcd 15 efg" ruby> var = " abc " " abc " ruby> "1234#{var}5678" "1234 abc 5678"

Ruby's string handling is smarter and more intuitive than C's. For instance, you can concatenate strings with , and repeat a string many times with :

ruby> "foo" + "bar" "foobar" ruby> "foo" * 2 "foofoo"

Concatenating strings is much more awkward in C because of the need for explicit memory management:

char *s = malloc(strlen(s1)+strlen(s2)+1); strcpy(s, s1); strcat(s, s2); /* ... */ free(s);

But using ruby, we do not have to consider the space occupied by a string. We are free from all memory management.

Here are some things you can do with strings.

Concatenation:

ruby> word = "fo" + "o" "foo"

Repetition:

ruby> word = word * 2 "foofoo"

Extracting characters (note that characters are integers in ruby):

ruby> word[0] 102 # 102 is ASCII code of `f' ruby> word[-1] 111 # 111 is ASCII code of `o'

(Negative indices mean offsets from the end of a string, rather than the beginning.)

Extracting substrings:

ruby> herb = "parsley" "parsley" ruby> herb[0,1] "p" ruby> herb[-2,2] "ey" ruby> herb[0..3] "pars" ruby> herb[-5..-2] "rsle"

Testing for equality:

ruby> "foo" == "foo" true ruby> "foo" == "bar" false

Note: In ruby 1.0, results of the above are reported in uppercase, e.g. .

Now, let's put some of these features to use. This puzzle is "guess the word," but perhaps the word "puzzle" is too dignified for what is to follow

# save this as guess.rb words = ['foobar', 'baz', 'quux'] secret = words[rand(3)] print "guess? " while guess = STDIN.gets guess.chop! if guess == secret print "You win!\n" break else print "Sorry, you lose.\n" end print "guess? " end print "The word was ", secret, ".\n"

For now, don't worry too much about the details of this code. Here is what a run of the puzzle program looks like.

% ruby guess.rb guess? foobar Sorry, you lose. guess? quux Sorry, you lose. guess? ^D The word was baz.

(I should have done a bit better, considering the 1/3 probability of success.)

Regular expressions

Let's put together a more interesting program. This time we test whether a string fits a description, encoded into a concise pattern.

There are some characters and character combinations that have special meaning in these patterns, including:

range specification (e.g., means a letter in the range to )
letter or digit; same as
neither letter or digit
space character; same as
non-space character
digit character; same as
non-digit character
backspace (0x08) (only if in a range specification)
word boundary (if not in a range specification)
non-word boundary
zero or more repetitions of the preceding
one or more repetitions of the preceding
at least m and at most n repetitions of the preceding
at most one repetition of the preceding; same as
either preceding or next expression may match
grouping

The common term for patterns that use this strange vocabulary is regular expressions. In ruby, as in Perl, they are generally surrounded by forward slashes rather than double quotes. If you have never worked with regular expressions before, they probably look anything but regular, but you would be wise to spend some time getting familiar with them. They have an efficient expressive power that will save you headaches (and many lines of code) whenever you need to do pattern matching, searching, or other manipulations on text strings.

For example, suppose we want to test whether a string fits this description: "Starts with lower case f, which is immediately followed by exactly one upper case letter, and optionally more junk after that, as long as there are no more lower case characters." If you're an experienced C programmer, you've probably already written about a dozen lines of code in your head, right? Admit it; you can hardly help yourself. But in ruby you need only request that your string be tested against the regular expression .

How about "Contains a hexadecimal number enclosed in angle brackets"? No problem.

ruby> def chab(s) # "contains hex in angle brackets" | (s =~ /<0(x|X)(\d|[a-f]|[A-F])+>/) != nil | end nil ruby> chab "Not this one." false ruby> chab "Maybe this? {0x35}" # wrong kind of brackets false ruby> chab "Or this? <0x38z7e>" # bogus hex digit false ruby> chab "Okay, this: <0xfc0004>." true

Though regular expressions can be puzzling at first glance, you will quickly gain satisfaction in being able to express yourself so economically.

Here is a little program to help you experiment with regular expressions. Store it as and run it by typing at the command line.

# Requires an ANSI terminal! st = "\033[7m" en = "\033[m" while TRUE print "str> " STDOUT.flush str = gets break if not str str.chop! print "pat> " STDOUT.flush re = gets break if not re re.chop! str.gsub! re, "#{st}\\&#{en}" print str, "\n" end print "\n"

The program requires input twice, once for a string and once for a regular expression. The string is tested against the regular expression, then displayed with all the matching parts highlighted in reverse video. Don't mind details now; an analysis of this code will come soon.

str> foobar pat> ^fo+ foobar ~~~

What you see above as red text will appear as reverse video in the program output. The "" lines are for the benefit of those using text-based browsers.

Let's try several more inputs.

str> abc012dbcd555 pat> \d abc012dbcd555 ~~~ ~~~

If that surprised you, refer to the table at the top of this page: has no relationship to the character , but rather matches a single digit.

What if there is more than one way to correctly match the pattern?

str> foozboozer pat> f.*z foozboozer ~~~~~~~~

is matched instead of just , since a regular expression maches the longest possible substring.

Here is a pattern to isolate a colon-delimited time field.

str> Wed Feb 7 08:58:04 JST 1996 pat> [0-9]+:[0-9]+(:[0-9]+)? Wed Feb 7 08:58:04 JST 1996 ~~~~~~~~

"" is a matching operator with respect to regular expressions; it returns the position in a string where a match was found, or if the pattern did not match.

ruby> "abcdef" =~ /d/ 3 ruby> "aaaaaa" =~ /d/ nil

Arrays

You can create an array by listing some items within square brackets () and separating them with commas. Ruby's arrays can accomodate diverse object types.

ruby> ary = [1, 2, "3"] [1, 2, "3"]

Arrays can be concatenated or repeated just as strings can.

ruby> ary + ["foo", "bar"] [1, 2, "3", "foo", "bar"] ruby> ary * 2 [1, 2, "3", 1, 2, "3"]

We can use index numbers to refer to any part of a array.

ruby> ary[0] 1 ruby> ary[0,2] [1, 2] ruby> ary[0..1] [1, 2] ruby> ary[-2] 2 ruby> ary[-2,2] [2, "3"] ruby> ary[-2..-1] [2, "3"]

(Negative indices mean offsets from the end of an array, rather than the beginning.)

Arrays can be converted to and from strings, using and respecitvely:

ruby> str = ary.join(":") "1:2:3" ruby> str.split(":") ["1", "2", "3"]

Hashes

An associative array has elements that are accessed not by sequential index numbers, but by keys which can have any sort of value. Such an array is sometimes called a hash or dictionary; in the ruby world, we prefer the term hash. A hash can be constructed by quoting pairs of items within curly braces (). You use a key to find something in a hash, much as you use an index to find something in an array.

ruby> h = {1 => 2, "2" => "4"} {1=>2, "2"=>"4"} ruby> h[1] 2 ruby> h["2"] "4" ruby> h[5] nil ruby> h[5] = 10 # appending value 10 ruby> h {5=>10, 1=>2, "2"=>"4"} ruby> h.delete 1 # deleting value 2 ruby> h[1] nil ruby> h {5=>10, "2"=>"4"}

Back to the simple examples

Now let's take apart the code of some of our previous example programs.

The following appeared in the simple examples chapter.

def fact(n) if n == 0 1 else n * fact(n-1) end end print fact(ARGV[0].to_i), "\n"

Because this is the first explanation, we examine each line individually.

Factorials

In the first line, is a statement to define a function (or, more precisely, a method; we'll talk more about what a method is in a later chapter). Here, it specifies that the function takes a single argument, referred to as .

The is for checking a condition. When the condition holds, the next bit of code is evaluated; otherwise whatever follows the is evaluated.

The value of is 1 if the condition holds.

If the condition does not hold, the code from here to is evaluated.

If the condition is not satisfied, the value of is the result of times .

The first closes the statement.

The second closes the statement.

print fact(ARGV[0].to_i), "\n"

This invokes our function using a value specified from the command line, and prints the result.

is an array which contains command line arguments. The members of are strings, so we must convert this into a integral number by . Ruby does not convert strings into integers automatically like perl does.

Hmmm... what would happen if we fed this program a negative number? Do you see the problem? Can you fix it?

Strings

Next we examine the puzzle program from the chapter on strings. As this is somewhat longer, we number the lines for reference.

01 words = ['foobar', 'baz', 'quux'] 02 secret = words[rand(3)] 03 04 print "guess? " 05 while guess = STDIN.gets 06 guess.chop! 07 if guess == secret 08 print "you win\n" 09 break 10 else 11 print "you lose.\n" 12 end 13 print "guess? " 14 end 15 print "the word is ", secret, ".\n"

In this program, a new control structure, , is used. The code between and its corresponding will execute repeatedly as long as some specified condition remains true.

in line 2 returns a random number in the range 0 to 2. This random number is used to extract one of the members of the array .

In line 5 we read one line from standard input by the method . If EOF (end of file) occurs while getting the line, returns . So the code associated with this will repeat until it sees ^D (or ^Z under DOS), signifying the end of input.

in line 6 removes the last character from ; in this case it will always be a newline character.

In line 15 we print the secret word. We have written this as a print statement with three arguments (which are printed one after the other), but it would have been equally effective to do it with a single argument, writing as to make it clear that it is a variable to be evaluated, not a literal word to be printed:

print "the word is #{secret}.\n"

Regular expressions

Finally we examine this program from the chapter on regular expressions.

01 st = "\033[7m" 02 en = "\033[m" 03 04 while TRUE 05 print "str> " 06 STDOUT.flush 07 str = gets 08 break if not str 09 str.chop! 10 print "pat> " 11 STDOUT.flush 12 re = gets 13 break if not re 14 re.chop! 15 str.gsub! re, "#{st}\\&#{en}" 16 print str, "\n" 17 end 18 print "\n"

In line 4, the condition for is hardwired to , so it forms what looks like an infinite loop. However we put statements in the 8th and 13th lines to escape the loop. These two s are also an example of modifiers. An " modifier" executes the statement on its left hand side if and only if the specified condition is satisfied.

There is more to say about (see lines 9 and 14). In ruby, we conventionally attach '' or '' to the end of certain method names. The exclamation point (, sometimes pronounced aloud as "bang!") indicates something potentially destructive, that is to say, something that can change the value of what it touches. affects a string directly, but with no exclamation point works on a copy. Here is an illustration of the difference.

ruby> s1 = "forth" "forth" ruby> s1.chop! # This changes s1. "fort" ruby> s2 = s1.chop # This puts a changed copy in s2, "for" ruby> s1 # ... without disturbing s1. "fort"

You will later come across method names that end in a question mark (, sometimes pronounced aloud as "huh?"); this indicates a "predicate" method, one that can return either or .

Line 15 deserves some careful attention. First, notice that is another so-called destructive method. It changes by replacing everything matching the pattern ( means substitute, and the leading means global, i.e., replace all matching parts in the string, not just the first one found). So far, so good; but what are we replacing the matched parts of the text with? and were defined in lines 1-2 as the ANSI sequences that make text color-inverted and normal, respectively. In line 15 they are enclosed in to ensure that they are actually interpreted as such (and we do not see the variable names printed instead). Between these we see "". This is a little tricky. Since the replacement string is in double quotes, the pair of backslashes will be interpreted as a single backslash; what actually sees will be "", and that happens to be a special code that refers to whatever matched the pattern in the first place. So the new string, when printed, looks just like the old one, except that the parts that matched the given pattern are highlighted in inverse video.

Control structures

This chapter explores more of ruby's control structures.

We use the statement to test a sequence of conditions. This is superficially similar to in C and Java but is considerably more powerful, as we shall see.

ruby> i=8 ruby> case i | when 1, 2..5 | print "1..5\n" | when 6..10 | print "6..10\n" | end 6..10 nil

is an expression which means the range between 2 and 5, inclusive. The following expression tests whether the value of falls within that range:

internally uses the relationship operator to check for several conditions at a time. In keeping with ruby's object oriented nature, is interpreted suitably for the object that appeared in the condition. For example, the following code tests string equality in the first , and regular expression matching in the second .

ruby> case 'abcdef' | when 'aaa', 'bbb' | print "aaa or bbb\n" | when /def/ | print "includes /def/\n" | end includes /def/ nil

Ruby provides convenient ways to construct loops, although you will find in the next chapter that learning how to use iterators will make it unnecessary to write explicit loops very often.

A is a repeated . We used it in our word-guessing puzzle and in the regular expression programs (see the previous chapter); there, it took the form surrounding a block of code to be repeated while condition was true. But and can as easily be applied to individual statements:

ruby> i = 0 0 ruby> print "It's zero.\n" if i==0 It's zero. nil ruby> print "It's negative.\n" if i<0 nil ruby> print "#{i+=1}\n" while i<3 1 2 3 nil

Sometimes you want to negate a test condition. An is a negated , and an is a negated . We'll leave it up to you to experiment with these.

There are four ways to interrupt the progress of a loop from inside. First, means, as in C, to escape from the loop entirely. Second, skips to the beginning of the next iteration of the loop (corresponding to C's ). Third, ruby has , which restarts the current iteration. The following is C code illustrating the meanings of , and :

while (condition) { label_redo: goto label_next; /* ruby's "next" */ goto label_break; /* ruby's "break" */ goto label_redo; /* ruby's "redo" */ ... ... label_next: } label_break: ...

The fourth way to get out of a loop from the inside is . An evaluation of causes escape not only from a loop but from the method that contains the loop. If an argument is given, it will be returned from the method call, otherwise is returned.

C programmers will be wondering by now how to make a "for" loop. Ruby's is a little more interesting than you might expect. The loop below runs once for each element in the collection:

for elt in collection ... end

The collection can be a range of values (this is what most people mean when they talk about a for loop):

ruby> for num in (4..6) | print num,"\n" | end 4 5 6 4..6

It may also be some other kind of collection, such as an array:

ruby> for elt in [100,-9.6,"pickle"] | print "#{elt}\t(#{elt.type})\n" | end 100 (Fixnum) -9.6 (Float) pickle (String) [100, -9.6, "pickle"]

But we're getting ahead of ourselves. is really another way of writing , which, it so happens, is our first example of an iterator. The following two forms are equivalent:

# If you're used to C or Java, you might prefer this. for i in collection ... end # A Smalltalk programmer might prefer this. collection.each {|i| ... }

Iterators can often be substituted for conventional loops, and once you get used to them, they are generally easier to deal with. So let's move on and learn more about them.

Iterators

Iterators are not an original concept with ruby. They are in common use in object-oriented languages. They are also used in Lisp, though there they are not called iterators. However the concept of iterator is an unfamiliar one for many so it should be explained in more detail.

The verb iterate means to do the same thing many times, you know, so an iterator is something that does the same thing many times.

When we write code, we need loops in various situations. In C, we code them using or . For example,

char *str; for (str = "abcdefg"; *str != '\0'; str++) { /* process a character here */ }

C'ssyntax provides an abstraction to help with the creation of a loop, but the test ofagainst a null character requires the programmer to know details about the internal structure of a string. This makes C feel like a low-level language. Higher level languages are marked by their more flexible support for iteration. Consider the followingshell script:

#!/bin/sh for i in *.[ch]; do # ... here would be something to do for each file done

All the C source and header files in the current directory are processed, and the command shell handles the details of picking up and substituting file names one by one. I think this is working at a higher level than C, don't you?

But there is more to consider: while it is fine for a language to provide iterators for built-in data types, it is a disappointment if we must go back to writing low level loops to iterate over our own data types. In OOP, users often define one data type after another, so this could be a serious problem.

So every OOP language includes some facilities for iteration. Some languages provide a special class for this purpose; ruby allows us to define iterators directly.

Ruby's type has some useful iterators:

ruby> "abc".each_byte{|c| printf "<%c>", c}; print "\n" <a><b><c> nil

is an iterator for each character in the string. Each character is substituted into the local variable . This can be translated into something that looks a lot like C code ...

ruby> s="abc";i=0 0 ruby> while i<s.length | printf "<%c>", s[i]; i+=1 | end; print "\n" <a><b><c> nil

... however, the iterator is both conceptually simpler and more likely to continue to work even if the class happens to be radically modified in the future. One benefit of iterators is that they tend to be robust in the face of such changes; indeed that is a characteristic of good code in general. (Yes, have patience, we're about to talk about what classes are, too.)

Another iterator of is .

ruby> "a\nb\nc\n".each_line{|l| print l} a b c nil

The tasks that would take most of the programming effort in C (finding line delimiters, generating substrings, etc.) are easily tackled using iterators.

The statement appearing in the previous chapter does iteration by way of an iterator. 's works the same as , so let's rewrite the above example with :

ruby> for l in "a\nb\nc\n" | print l | end a b c nil

We can use a control structure in conjunction with an iterated loop, and it will retry the current iteration of the loop from the top.

ruby> c=0 0 ruby> for i in 0..4 | print i | if i == 2 and c == 0 | c = 1 | print "\n" | retry | end | end; print "\n" 012 01234 nil

occurs sometimes in a definition of an iterator. moves control to the block of code that is passed to the iterator (this will be explored in more detail in the chapter about procedure objects). The following example defines an iterator , which repeats a block of code the number of times specified in an argument.

ruby> def repeat(num) | while num > 0 | yield | num -= 1 | end | end nil ruby> repeat(3) { print "foo\n" } foo foo foo nil

With , one can define an iterator which works the same as , though it's too slow to be practical.

ruby> def WHILE(cond) | return if not cond | yield | retry | end nil ruby> i=0; WHILE(i<3) { print i; i+=1 } 012 nil

Do you understand what an iterator is? There are a few restrictions, but you can write your original iterators; and in fact, whenever you define a new data type, it is often convenient to define suitable iterators to go with it. In this sense, the above examples are not terribly useful. We can talk about practical iterators after we have a better understanding of what classes are.

Object-oriented thinking

Object oriented is a catchy phrase. To call anything object oriented can make you sound pretty smart. Ruby claims to be an object oriented scripting language; but what exactly does "object oriented" mean?

There have been a variety of answers to that question, all of which probably boil down to about the same thing. Rather than sum it too quickly, let's think for a moment about the traditional programming paradigm.

Traditionally, a programming problem is attacked by coming up with some kinds of data representations, and procedures that operate on that data. Under this model, data is inert, passive, and helpless; it sits at the complete mercy of a large procedural body, which is active, logical, and all-powerful.

The problem with this approach is that programs are written by programmers, who are only human and can only keep so much detail clear in their heads at any one time. As a project gets larger, its procedural core grows to the point where it is difficult to remember how the whole thing works. Minor lapses of thinking and typographical errors become more likely to result in well-concealed bugs. Complex and unintended interactions begin to emerge within the procedural core, and maintaining it becomes like trying to carry around an angry squid without letting any tentacles touch your face. There are guidelines for programming that can help to minimize and localize bugs within this traditional paradigm, but there is a better solution that involves fundamentally changing the way we work.

What object-oriented programming does is to let us delegate most of the mundane and repetitive logical work to the data itself; it changes our concept of data from passive to active. Put another way,

  • We stop treating each piece of data as a box with an open lid that lets us reach in and throw things around.
  • We start treating each piece of data as a working machine with a closed lid and a few well-marked switches and dials.

What is described above as a "machine" may be very simple or complex on the inside; we can't tell from the outside, and we don't allow ourselves to open the machine up (except when we are absolutely sure something is wrong with its design), so we are required to do things like flip the switches and read the dials to interact with the data. Once the machine is built, we don't want to have to think about how it operates.

You might think we are just making more work for ourselves, but this approach tends to do a nice job of preventing all kinds of things from going wrong.

Let's start with an example that is too simple to be of practical value, but should illustrate at least part of the concept. Your car has a tripmeter. Its job is to keep track of the distance the car has travelled since the last time its reset button was pushed. How would we model this in a programming language? In C, the tripmeter would just be a numeric variable, possibly of type . The program would manipulate that variable by increasing its value in small increments, with occasional resets to zero when appropriate. What's wrong with that? A bug in the program could assign a bogus value to the variable, for any number of unexpected reasons. Anyone who has programmed in C knows what it is like to spend hours or days tracking down such a bug whose cause seems absurdly simple once it has been found. (The moment of finding the bug is commonly indicated by the sound of a loud slap to the forehead.)

The same problem would be attacked from a much different angle in an object-oriented context. The first thing a programmer asks when designing the tripmeter is not "which of the familiar data types comes closest to resembling this thing?" but "how exactly is this thing supposed to act?" The difference winds up being a profound one. It is necessary to spend a little bit of time deciding exactly what an odometer is for, and how the outside world expects to interact with it. We decide to build a little machine with controls that allow us to increment it, reset it, read its value, and nothing else.

We don't provide a way for a tripmeter to be assigned arbitary values; why? because we all know tripmeters don't work that way. There are only a few things you should be able to do with a tripmeter, and those are all we allow. Thus, if something else in the program mistakenly tries to place some other value (say, the target temperature of the vehicle's climate control) into the tripmeter, there is an immediate indication of what went wrong. We are told when running the program (or possibly while compiling, depending on the nature of the language) that we are not allowed to assign aribtrary values to Tripmeter objects. The message might not be exactly that clear, but it will be reasonably close to that. It doesn't prevent the error, does it? But it quickly points us in the direction of the cause. This is only one of several ways in which OO programming can save a lot of wasted time.

We commonly take one step of abstraction above this, because it turns out to be as easy to build a factory that makes machines as it is to make an individual machine. We aren't likely to build a single tripmeter directly; rather, we arrange for any number of tripmeters to be built from a single pattern. The pattern (or if you like, the tripmeter factory) corresponds to what we call a class, and an individual tripmeter generated from the pattern (or made by the factory) corresponds to an object. Most OO languages require a class to be defined before we can have a new kind of object, but ruby does not.

It's worth noting here that the use of an OO language will not enforce proper OO design. Indeed it is possible in any language to write code that is unclear, sloppy, ill-conceived, buggy, and wobbly all over. What ruby does for you (as opposed, especially, to C++) is to make the practice of OO programming feel natural enough that even when you are working on a small scale you don't feel a necessity to resort to ugly code to save effort. We will be discussing the ways in which ruby accomplishes that admirable goal as this guide progresses; the next topic will be the "switches and dials" (object methods) and from there we'll move on to the "factories" (classes). Are you still with us?

Methods

What is a method? In OO programming, we don't think of operating on data directly from outside an object; rather, objects have some understanding of how to operate on themselves (when asked nicely to do so). You might say we pass messages to an object, and those messages will generally elicit some kind of an action or meaningful reply. This ought to happen without our necessarily knowing or caring how the object really works inside. The tasks we are allowed to ask an object to perform (or equivalently, the messages it understands) are that object's methods.

In ruby, we invoke a method of an object with dot notation (just as in C++ or Java). The object being talked to is named to the left of the dot.

ruby> "abcdef".length 6

Intuitively, this string object is being asked how long it is. Technically, we are invoking the method of the object .

Other objects may have a slightly different interpretation of , or none at all. Decisions about how to respond to a message are made on the fly, during program execution, and the action taken may change depending on what a variable refers to.

ruby> foo = "abc" "abc" ruby> foo.length 3 ruby> foo = ["abcde", "fghij"] ["abcde", "fghij"] ruby> foo.length 2

What we mean by length can vary depending on what object we are talking about. The first time we askfor its length in the above example, it refers to a simple string, and there can only be one sensible answer. The second time,refers to an array, and we might reasonably think of its length as either 2, 5, or 10; but the most generally applicable answer is of course 2 (the other kinds of length can be figured out if wished).

ruby> foo[0].length 5 ruby> foo[0].length + foo[1].length 10

The thing to notice here is that an array knows something about what it means to be an array. Pieces of data in ruby carry such knowledge with them, so that the demands made on them can automatically be satisfied in the various appropriate ways. This relieves the programmer from the burden of memorizing a great many specific function names, because a relatively small number of method names, corresponding to concepts that we know how to express in natural language, can be applied to different kinds of data and the results will be what we expect. This feature of OO programming languages (which, IMHO, Java has done a poor job of exploiting) is called polymorphism.

When an object receives a message that it does not understand, an error is "raised":

ruby> foo = 5 5 ruby> foo.lengthERR: (eval):1: undefined method `length' for 5(Fixnum)

So it is necessary to know what methods are acceptable to an object, though we need not know how the methods are processed.

If arguments are given to a method, they are generally surrounded by parentheses,

object.method(arg1, arg2)

but they can be omitted if doing so does not cause ambiguity.

There is a special variable in ruby; it refers to whatever object calls a method. This happens so often that for convenience the "" may be omitted from method calls from an object to itself:

self.method_name(args...)

is the same as

What we would think of traditionally as a function call is just this abbreviated way of writing method invocations by . This makes ruby what is called a pure object oriented language. Still, functional methods behave quite similarly to the functions in other programming languages for the benefit of those who do not grok how function calls are really object methods in ruby. We can speak of functions as if they were not really object methods if we want to.

Classes

The real world is filled by objects, and we can classify them. For example, a very small child is likely to say "bow-wow" when seeing a dog, regardless of the breed; we naturally see the world in terms of these categories.

In OO programming terminology, a category of objects like "dog" is called a class, and some specific object belonging to a class is called an instance of that class.

Generally, to make an object in ruby or any other OO language, first one defines the characteristics of a class, then creates an instance. To illustrate the process, let's first define a simple class.

ruby> class Dog | def speak | print "Bow Wow\n" | end | end nil

In ruby, a class definition is a region of code between the keywords and . A inside this region begins the definition of a method of the class, which as we discussed in the previous chapter, corresponds to some specific behavior for objects of that class.

Now that we have defined a class, we can use it to make a dog:

ruby> pochi = Dog.new #<Dog:0xbcb90>

We have made a new instance of the class , and have given it the name . The method of any class makes a new instance. Because is a according to our class definition, it has whatever properties we decided a should have. Since our idea of -ness was very simple, there is just one trick we can ask to do.

ruby> pochi.speak Bow Wow nil

Making a new instance of a class is sometimes called instantiating that class. We need to have a dog before we can experience the pleasure of its conversation; we can't merely ask the Dog class to bark for us.

ruby> Dog.speakERR: (eval):1: undefined method `speak' for Dog:class

It makes no more sense than trying to eat the concept of a sandwich.

On the other hand, if we want to hear the sound of a dog without getting emotionally attached, we can create (instantiate) an ephemeral, temporary dog, and coax a little noise out of it before it disappears.

ruby> (Dog.new).speak # or more commonly, Dog.new.speak Bow Wow nil

"Wait," you say, "what's all this about the poor fellow disappearing afterwards?" It's true: if we don't bother to give it a name (as we did for ), ruby's automatic garbage collection decides it is an unwanted stray dog, and mercilessly disposes of it. Really it's okay, you know, because we can make all the dogs we want.

Inheritance

Our classification of objects in everyday life is naturally hierarchical. We know that all cats are mammals, and all mammals are animals. Smaller classes inherit characteristics from the larger classes to which they belong. If all mammals breathe, then all cats breathe.

We can express this concept in ruby:

ruby> class Mammal | def breathe | print "inhale and exhale\n" | end | end nil ruby> class Cat<Mammal | def speak | print "Meow\n" | end | end nil

Though we didn't specify how a should breathe, every cat will inherit that behavior from the class since was defined as a subclass of . (In OO terminology, the smaller class is a subclass and the larger class is a superclass.) Hence from a programmer's standpoint, cats get the ability to breathe for free; after we add a method, our cats can both breathe and speak.

ruby> tama = Cat.new #<Cat:0xbd80e8> ruby> tama.breathe inhale and exhale nil ruby> tama.speak Meow nil

There will be situations where certain properties of the superclass should not be inherited by a particular subclass. Though birds generally know how to fly, penguins are a flightless subclass of birds.

ruby> class Bird | def preen | print "I am cleaning my feathers." | end | def fly | print "I am flying." | end | end nil ruby> class Penguin<Bird | def fly | fail "Sorry. I'd rather swim." | end | end nil

Rather than exhaustively define every characteristic of every new class, we need only to append or to redefine the differences between each subclass and its superclass. This use of inheritance is sometimes called differential programming. It is one of the benefits of object-oriented programming.

Redefinition of methods

In a subclass, we can change the behavior of the instances by redefining superclass methods.

ruby> class Human | def identify | print "I'm a person.\n" | end | def train_toll(age) | if age < 12 | print "Reduced fare.\n"; | else | print "Normal fare.\n"; | end | end | end nil ruby> Human.new.identify I'm a person. nil ruby> class Student1<Human | def identify | print "I'm a student.\n" | end | end nil ruby> Student1.new.identify I'm a student. nil

Suppose we would rather enhance the superclass's method than entirely replace it. For this we can use .

ruby> class Student2<Human | def identify | super | print "I'm a student too.\n" | end | end nil ruby> Student2.new.identify I'm a human. I'm a student too. nil

lets us pass arguments to the original method. It is sometimes said that there are two kinds of people...

ruby> class Dishonest<Human | def train_toll(age) | super(11) # we want a cheap fare. | end | end nil ruby> Dishonest.new.train_toll(25) Reduced fare. nil ruby> class Honest<Human | def train_toll(age) | super(age) # pass the argument we were given | end | end nil ruby> Honest.new.train_toll(25) Normal fare. nil

Access control

Earlier, we said that ruby has no functions, only methods. However there is more than one kind of method. In this chapter we introduce access controls.

Consider what happens when we define a method in the "top level", not inside a class definition. We can think of such a method as analogous to a function in a more traditional language like C.

ruby> def square(n) | n * n | end nil ruby> square(5) 25

Our new method would appear not to belong to any class, but in fact ruby gives it to the class, which is a superclass of every other class. As a result, any object should now be able to use that method. That turns out to be true, but there's a small catch: it is a private method of every class. We'll discuss some of what this means below, but one consequence is that it may be invoked only in function style, as here:

ruby> class Foo | def fourth_power_of(x) | square(x) * square(x) | end | end nil ruby> Foo.new.fourth_power_of 10 10000

We are not allowed to explicitly apply the method to an object:

ruby> "fish".square(5)ERR: (eval):1: private method `square' called for "fish":String

This rather cleverly preserves ruby's pure-OO nature (functions are still object methods, but the receiver is implicitly) while providing functions that can be written just as in a more traditional language.

A common mental discipline in OO programming, which we have hinted at in an earlier chapter, concerns the separation of specification and implementation, or what tasks an object is supposed to accomplish and how it actually accomplishes them. The internal workings of an object should be kept generally hidden from its users; they should only care about what goes in and what comes out, and trust the object to know what it is doing internally. As such it is often helpful for classes to have methods that the outside world does not see, but which are used internally (and can be improved by the programmer whenever desired, without changing the way users see objects of that class). In the trivial example below, think of as the invisible inner workings of the class.

ruby> class Test | def times_two(a) | print a," times two is ",engine(a),"\n" | end | def engine(b) | b*2 | end | private:engine # this hides engine from users | end Test ruby> test = Test.new #<Test:0x4017181c> ruby> test.engine(6)ERR: (eval):1: private method `engine' called for #<Test:0x4017181c> ruby> test.times_two(6) 6 times two is 12. nil

We might have expected to return 12, but instead we learn that is inaccessible when we are acting as a user of a object. Only other methods, such as , are allowed to use . We are required to go through the public interface, which consists of the method. The programmer who is in charge of this class can change freely (here, perhaps by changing to , assuming for the sake of argument that it improved performance) without affecting how the user interacts with objects. This example is of course much too simple to be useful; the benefits of access controls become more clear only when we begin to create more complicated and interesting classes.

Singleton methods

The behavior of an instance is determined by its class, but there may be times we know that a particular instance should have special behavior. In most languages, we must go to the trouble of defining another class, which would then only be instantiated once. In ruby we can give any object its own methods.

ruby> class SingletonTest | def size | print "25\n" | end | end nil ruby> test1 = SingletonTest.new #<SingletonTest:0xbc468> ruby> test2 = SingletonTest.new #<SingletonTest:0xbae20> ruby> def test2.size | print "10\n" | end nil ruby> test1.size 25 nil ruby> test2.size 10 nil

In this example, and belong to same class, but has been given a redefined method and so they behave differently. A method given only to a single object is called a singleton method.

Singleton methods are often used for elements of a graphic user interface (GUI), where different actions need to be taken when different buttons are pressed.

Singleton methods are not unique to ruby, as they appear in CLOS, Dylan, etc. Also, some languages, for example, Self and NewtonScript, have singleton methods only. These are sometimes called prototype-based languages.

Modules

Modules in ruby are similar to classes, except:

  • A module can have no instances.
  • A module can have no subclasses.
  • A module is defined by .

Actually... the Module class of module is the superclass of the Class class of class. Got that? No? Let's move on.

There are two typical uses of modules. One is to collect related methods and constants in a central location. The module in ruby's standard library plays such a role:

ruby> Math.sqrt(2) 1.41421 ruby> Math::PI 3.14159

The operator tells the ruby interpreter which module it should consult for the value of a constant (conceivably, some module besides might mean something else by ). If we want to refer to the methods or constants of a module directly without using , we can that module:

ruby> include Math Object ruby> sqrt(2) 1.41421 ruby> PI 3.14159

Another use of modules is called mixin. Some OO programming langages, including C++, allow multiple inheritance, that is, inheritance from more than one superclass. A real-world example of multiple inheritance is an alarm clock; you can think of alarm clocks as belonging to the class of clocks and also the class of things with buzzers.

Ruby purposely does not implement true multiple inheritance, but the mixin technique is a good alternative. Remember that modules cannot be instantiated or subclassed; but if we a module in a class definition, its methods are effectively appended, or "mixed in", to the class.

Mixin can be thought of as a way of asking for whatever particular properties we want to have. For example, if a class has a working method, mixing in the standard library's module gives us and methods for free.

This use of modules gives us the basic functionality of multiple inheritance but allows us to represent class relationships with a simple tree structure, and so simplifies the language implementation considerably (a similar choice was made by the designers of Java).

Procedure objects

It is often desirable to be able to specify responses to unexpected events. As it turns out, this is most easily done if we can pass blocks of code as arguments to other methods, which means we want to be able to treat code as if it were data.

A new procedure object is formed using :

ruby> quux = proc { | print "QUUXQUUXQUUX!!!\n" | } #<Proc:0x4017357c>

Now what refers to is an object, and like most objects, it has behavior that can be evoked. Specifically, we can ask it to execute, via its method:

ruby> quux.call QUUXQUUXQUUX!!! nil

So, after all that, can be used as a method argument? Sure.

ruby> def run( p ) | print "About to call a procedure...\n" | p.call | print "There: finished.\n" | end nil ruby> run quux About to call a procedure... QUUXQUUXQUUX!!! There: finished. nil

The method lets us assign the response of our choice to any system signal.

ruby> inthandler = proc{ print "^C was pressed.\n" } #<Proc:0x401730a4> ruby> trap "SIGINT", inthandler #<Proc:0x401735e0>

Normally pressing ^C makes the interpreter quit. Now a message is printed and the interpreter continues running, so you don't lose the work you were doing. (You're not trapped in the interpreter forever; you can still exit by typing or pressing ^D.)

A final note before we move on to other topics: it's not strictly necessary to give a procedure object a name before binding it to a signal. An equivalent anonymous procedure object would look like

ruby> trap "SIGINT", proc{ print "^C was pressed.\n" } nil

or more compactly still,

ruby> trap "SIGINT", 'print "^C was pressed.\n"' nil

This abbreviated form provides some convenience and readability when you write small anonymous procedures.

Variables

Ruby has three kinds of variables, one kind of constant and exactly two pseudo-variables. The variables and the constants have no type. While untyped variables have some drawbacks, they have many more advantages and fit well with ruby's quick and easy philosophy.

Variables must be declared in most languages in order to specify their type, modifiability (i.e., whether they are constants), and scope; since type is not an issue, and the rest is evident from the variable name as you are about to see, we do not need variable declarations in ruby.

The first character of an identifier categorizes it at a glance:

global variable
instance variable
or local variable
constant

The only exceptions to the above are ruby's pseudo-variables: , which always refers to the currently executing object, and , which is the meaningless value assigned to uninitialized variables. Both are named as if they are local variables, but is a global variable maintained by the interpreter, and is really a constant. As these are the only two exceptions, they don't confuse things too much.

You may not assign values to or . , as a value of , refers to the top-level object:

ruby> self main ruby> nil nil

Global variables

A global variable has a name beginning with . It can be referred to from anywhere in a program. Before initialization, a global variable has the special value .

ruby> $foo nil ruby> $foo = 5 5 ruby> $foo 5

Global variables should be used sparingly. They are dangerous because they can be written to from anywhere. Overuse of globals can make isolating bugs difficult; it also tends to indicate that the design of a program has not been carefully thought out. Whenever you do find it necessary to use a global variable, be sure to give it a descriptive name that is unlikely to be inadvertently used for something else later (calling it something like as above is probably a bad idea).

One nice feature of a global variable is that it can be traced; you can specify a procedure which is invoked whenever the value of the variable is changed.

ruby> trace_var :$x, proc{print "$x is now ", $x, "\n"} nil ruby> $x = 5 $x is now 5 5

When a global variable has been rigged to work as a trigger to invoke a procedure whenever changed, we sometimes call it an active variable. For instance, it is useful for keeping a GUI display up to date.

There is a collection of special variables whose names consist of a dollar sign () followed by a single character. For example, contains the process id of the ruby interpreter, and is read-only. Here are the major system variables and their meanings (see the ruby reference manual for details):

latest error message
location of error
string last read by
line number last read by interpreter
string last matched by regexp
the last regexp match, as an array of subexpressions
n the nth subexpression in the last match (same as n)
case-insensitivity flag
input record separator
output record separator
the name of the ruby script file
the command line arguments
interpreter's process ID
exit status of last executed child process

In the above, and have local scope. Their names suggest they should be global, but they are much more useful this way, and there are historical reasons for using these names.

Instance variables

An instance variable has a name beginning with , and its scope is confined to whatever object refers to. Two different objects, even if they belong to the same class, are allowed to have different values for their instance variables. From outside the object, instance variables cannot be altered or even observed (i.e., ruby's instance variables are never public) except by whatever methods are explicitly provided by the programmer. As with globals, instance variables have the value until they are initialized.

Instance variables of ruby do not need declaration. This implies a flexible structure of objects. In fact, each instance variable is dynamically appended to an object when it is first referenced.

ruby> class InstTest | def set_foo(n) | @foo = n | end | def set_bar(n) | @bar = n | end | end nil ruby> i = InstTest.new #<InstTest:0x83678> ruby> i.set_foo(2) 2 ruby> i #<InstTest:0x83678 @foo=2> ruby> i.set_bar(4) 4 ruby> i #<InstTest:0x83678 @foo=2, @bar=4>

Notice above that does not report a value for until after the method is invoked.

Local variables

A local variable has a name starting with a lower case letter or an underscore character (). Local variables do not, like globals and instance variables, have the value before initialization:

ruby> $foo nil ruby> @foo nil ruby> fooERR: (eval):1: undefined local variable or method `foo' for main(Object)

The first assignment you make to a local variable acts something like a declaration. If you refer to an uninitialized local variable, the ruby interpreter thinks of it as an attempt to invoke a method of that name; hence the error message you see above.

Generally, the scope of a local variable is one of

  • ...
  • ...
  • ...
  • ...
  • ...
  • the entire program (unless one of the above applies)

In the next example,is an operator which checks whether an identifier is defined. It returns a description of the identifier if it is defined, or otherwise. As you see, 's scope is local to the loop; when the loop exits, is undefined.

ruby> foo = 44; print foo, "\n"; defined? foo 44 "local-variable" ruby> loop {bar=45; print bar,"\n"; break}; defined? bar 45 nil

Procedure objects that live in the same scope share whatever local variables also belong to that scope. Here, the local variable is shared by and the procedure objects and :

ruby> bar=0 0 ruby> p1 = proc{|n| bar=n} #<Proc:0x8deb0> ruby> p2 = proc{bar} #<Proc:0x8dce8> ruby> p1.call(5) 5 ruby> bar 5 ruby> p2.call 5

Note that the "" at the beginning cannot be omitted; that assignment ensures that the scope of will encompass and . Otherwise and would each end up with its own local variable , and calling would have resulted in that "undefined local variable or method" error.

A powerful feature of procedure objects follows from their ability to be passed as arguments: shared local variables remain valid even when they are passed out of the original scope.

ruby> def box | contents = 15 | get = proc{contents} | set = proc{|n| contents = n} | return get, set | end nil ruby> reader, writer = box [#<Proc:0x40170fc0>, #<Proc:0x40170fac>] ruby> reader.call 15 ruby> writer.call(2) 2 ruby> reader.call 2

Ruby is particularly smart about scope. It is evident in our example that the variable is being shared between the and . But we can also manufacture multiple reader-writer pairs using as defined above; each pair shares a variable, and the pairs do not interfere with each other.

ruby> reader_1, writer_1 = box [#<Proc:0x40172820>, #<Proc:0x4017280c>] ruby> reader_2, writer_2 = box [#<Proc:0x40172668>, #<Proc:0x40172654>] ruby> writer_1.call(99) 99 ruby> reader_1.call 99 ruby> reader_2.call 15

Class constants

A constant has a name starting with an uppercase character. It should be assigned a value at most once. In the current implementation of ruby, reassignment of a constant generates a warning but not an error (the non-ANSI version of does not report the warning):

ruby>fluid=30 30 ruby>fluid=31 31 ruby>Solid=32 32 ruby>Solid=33 (eval):1: warning: already initialized constant Solid 33

Constants may be defined within classes, but unlike instance variables, they are accessible outside the class.

ruby> class ConstClass | C1=101 | C2=102 | C3=103 | def show | print C1," ",C2," ",C3,"\n" | end | end nil ruby> C1ERR: (eval):1: uninitialized constant C1 ruby> ConstClass::C1 101 ruby> ConstClass.new.show 101 102 103 nil

Constants can also be defined in modules.

ruby> module ConstModule | C1=101 | C2=102 | C3=103 | def showConstants | print C1," ",C2," ",C3,"\n" | end |

Hustle and Flow (Control)

Conditionals

The statement



Conditional Operators in Ruby

Conditional Link Operators in Ruby

The Statement

Loops

Conditional Loops





Iterating Loops and Blocks



Statement Modifiers

Controlling Loops



Exceptions

Handling Exceptions

Raising Exceptions

My Own Exception

Throw and Catch

This Chapter





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