Industrial Pollution Essay Title

Pollution Essay

Pollution is the process of making land, water, air or other parts of the environment dirty and unsafe or unsuitable to use. This can be done through the introduction of a contaminant into a natural environment, but the contaminant doesn't need to be tangible. Things as simple as light, sound and temperature can be considered pollutants when introduced artificially into an environment.

Completing a pollution essay paper can prove to be challenging before figuring out what direction to go in. But once you begin here with finding the right subject for your project the task becomes much simpler. There are a number of different topics about pollution to select from. For instance you could write about water pollution, air pollution, environmental pollution or many other related topics (listed below). Our first goal will be in helping you find the right subject matter to start on.

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Pollution Essay Topics

Here's a list of Pollution Essay topics, titles and different search term keyword ideas. The larger the font size the more popular the keyword, this list is sorted in alphabetical order:
  • Air pollution composition
  • Air pollution essay
  • Air pollution essay for students
  • Cause of water pollution essay
  • Essay about environmental pollution
  • Essay environmental pollution 150 words
  • Essay on soil pollution
  • Food pollution essay
  • Global warming and pollution essay
  • Growing pollution essay
  • Industrial pollution essay
  • Introduction pollution essay
  • Land pollution essay in english
  • Pollution and its effects essay
  • Pollution control essay
  • Pollution control slogans
  • Pollution essay topics
  • Pollution has no solution essay
  • Reduce pollution essay
  • River pollution essay
  • Short essay on water pollution
  • Short speech on pollution essays
  • Solution for pollution essay
  • Sound pollution essay
  • Sources of environmental pollution essay
  • The great pacific garbage patch essay
  • Water pollution causes and effects essay
  • Water pollution essay
  • Ways to reduce air pollution essay

Pollution Essay Examples

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Transportation And Air Pollution In The United States


Words: 1092    Pages: 4    Paragraphs: 6    Sentences: 61    Read Time: 03:58Air pollution has become a significant problem in the US as well as the world over years. It's the result of variety of sources like industrial, agriculture, mechanical and transportation. Sadly, transportation which releases a great amount of carbon dioxides, nitrogen oxides and other toxicity is proven the leading cause of air pollution. There are several transportation factors that contribute t

              Air pollution has become a significant problem in the US as well as the world over years. It's the result of variety of sources like industrial, agriculture, mechanical and transportation. Sadly, transportation which releases a great amount of carbon dioxides, nitrogen oxides and other toxicity is proven the leading cause of air pollution. There are several transportation factors that contribute t

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Class 10 (High School)

The Effects Of Pollution In Water


Words: 553    Pages: 2    Paragraphs: 3    Sentences: 36    Read Time: 02:00Today's waters are constantly being treated like sewage dumps or trash cans. We use them as garbage cans every day polluting the water more and more. "Pollution is often by way of rivers, drains and outflow pipes." Causing an outflow of sewage into our ocean waters. This is not only affecting the community but also the marine life and other sea creatures living in the ocean." This pollution includ

              Today's waters are constantly being treated like sewage dumps or trash cans. We use them as garbage cans every day polluting the water more and more. "Pollution is often by way of rivers, drains and outflow pipes." Causing an outflow of sewage into our ocean waters. This is not only affecting the community but also the marine life and other sea creatures living in the ocean." This pollution includ

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Class 9 (High School)

Most Polluted Cities


Words: 906    Pages: 3    Paragraphs: 5    Sentences: 33    Read Time: 03:17Day after day, the air we breath becomes more and more polluted by industrial, household, traffic, and other kinds of emissions. Huge factories and plants, billions of cars and public transport units, technogenic catastrophes, household aerosols, and other factors cause massive air pollution, decreasing the quality of life in many countries, and negatively affects the health of their citizens. Alt

              Day after day, the air we breath becomes more and more polluted by industrial, household, traffic, and other kinds of emissions. Huge factories and plants, billions of cars and public transport units, technogenic catastrophes, household aerosols, and other factors cause massive air pollution, decreasing the quality of life in many countries, and negatively affects the health of their citizens. Alt

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Class 15 (College)

The Pollution Problem Essay


Words: 1045    Pages: 4    Paragraphs: 9    Sentences: 68    Read Time: 03:48Environmental pollution is one of the main threats for our planet. Pollution destroys the living environment and endangers human existence on Earth. No doubt, the economy finds many benefits in technological development. However, toxic emissions due to the work of factories, transportation, construction sites pollute the environment substantially. As the environmental pollution is a broad topic co

              Environmental pollution is one of the main threats for our planet. Pollution destroys the living environment and endangers human existence on Earth. No doubt, the economy finds many benefits in technological development. However, toxic emissions due to the work of factories, transportation, construction sites pollute the environment substantially. As the environmental pollution is a broad topic co

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Class 11 (High School)

The Main Causes And Effects Of Water Pollution


Words: 266    Pages: 1    Paragraphs: 3    Sentences: 11    Read Time: 00:58Water is known to be a universal solvent and this means that various substances can get added to water and remain completely or partially dissolved or at times even undissolved. Water pollution is a result of changes in its quality and such changes can occur due to natural reasons or as a consequence of one or more activities by humans (Goel 1). Such changes in quality can render water unsuitable

              Water is known to be a universal solvent and this means that various substances can get added to water and remain completely or partially dissolved or at times even undissolved. Water pollution is a result of changes in its quality and such changes can occur due to natural reasons or as a consequence of one or more activities by humans (Goel 1). Such changes in quality can render water unsuitable

+1

Class 15 (College)

An Overview Essay Of The Immense Pollution Problem


Words: 876    Pages: 3    Paragraphs: 8    Sentences: 52    Read Time: 03:11As time advances pollution is every where, humans more and more rely on machines to live their lives. Machines like cars and trucks, airplanes, computer; all of which produce some kind of pollution. Maybe air, water, and even noise pollution are cause by these machines. Efforts to improve the standard of living for humans have resulted in pollution. Much of the world's air, water, and land are now

              As time advances pollution is every where, humans more and more rely on machines to live their lives. Machines like cars and trucks, airplanes, computer; all of which produce some kind of pollution. Maybe air, water, and even noise pollution are cause by these machines. Efforts to improve the standard of living for humans have resulted in pollution. Much of the world's air, water, and land are now

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Class 11 (High School)

Major Factors Of Environmental Pollution


Words: 386    Pages: 1    Paragraphs: 5    Sentences: 20    Read Time: 01:24Among the problems that worry modern humanity the most, pollution is one of the most worrisome. Through the recent decades, people-especially in western countries such as the U.S., Canada, and in European countries-have become more conscious about ecology, the overall situation has not seemed to change for the better. The present prominence of pollution has happened due to a number of major factor

              Among the problems that worry modern humanity the most, pollution is one of the most worrisome. Through the recent decades, people-especially in western countries such as the U.S., Canada, and in European countries-have become more conscious about ecology, the overall situation has not seemed to change for the better. The present prominence of pollution has happened due to a number of major factor

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Class 14 (College)

Short Essay About The Effect Of Indoor Pollution On The Environment


Words: 235    Pages: 1    Paragraphs: 4    Sentences: 14    Read Time: 00:51The phrase House isnt a strange thing for us. Everyone in the earth wish to has his or her own house to live in. People use their house for shelter and a place to sleep, cook, bath, relax and many more. Whats the most important is that they could spend their time with their families. Nowadays, most people are aware that outdoor pollution can damage their health but may not know that indoor p

              The phrase House isnt a strange thing for us. Everyone in the earth wish to has his or her own house to live in. People use their house for shelter and a place to sleep, cook, bath, relax and many more. Whats the most important is that they could spend their time with their families.
             
             
              Nowadays, most people are aware that outdoor pollution can damage their health but may not know that indoor p

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Class 9 (High School)

Different Types Of Pollution Essay


Words: 463    Pages: 2    Paragraphs: 6    Sentences: 33    Read Time: 01:41Pollution is a major hazard that causes many problems to the people and environment. Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into a natural environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem. It is divided into three: air, water and noise. Pollutants are the elements of pollution. Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or bio

              Pollution is a major hazard that causes many problems to the people and environment. Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into a natural environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem. It is divided into three: air, water and noise. Pollutants are the elements of pollution.
             
             
              Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or bio

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Class 12 (High School)

The Dangers Of Water Pollution In Today's World


Words: 776    Pages: 3    Paragraphs: 8    Sentences: 40    Read Time: 02:49Water pollution occurs when people overload the water environment with wastes. It's defined as contamination of streams, lakes, underground water, bays or oceans by substances harmful to living things. Water is necessary to life on earth. All organisms contain it, some drink it, and some live in it. Plants and animals require water that is moderately pure, and they cannot survive if their water is

              Water pollution occurs when people overload the water environment with wastes. It's defined as contamination of streams, lakes, underground water, bays or oceans by substances harmful to living things. Water is necessary to life on earth. All organisms contain it, some drink it, and some live in it. Plants and animals require water that is moderately pure, and they cannot survive if their water is

Class 11 (High School)

An Essay On Our World And Our Pollution


Words: 335    Pages: 1    Paragraphs: 7    Sentences: 20    Read Time: 01:13This is the planet we live on, we should take care of it like we would take care of a new pet. But instead we neglect it. You may think you don't do much to pollute the earth, but everyone does a little part of it. Trees are a sours of our oxygen but we cut them down to make room for houses and make paper. If you smock chances are you've left buds laying around somewhere and it takes them around t

              This is the planet we live on, we should take care of it like we would take care of a new pet. But instead we neglect it. You may think you don't do much to pollute the earth, but everyone does a little part of it. Trees are a sours of our oxygen but we cut them down to make room for houses and make paper. If you smock chances are you've left buds laying around somewhere and it takes them around t

Environment Essay +2

Class 8 (Middle School)

Nigerian Environmental Law


Words: 419    Pages: 2    Paragraphs: 6    Sentences: 21    Read Time: 01:31Nigeria is an oil exporting nation. The economy of the nation is entirely dependable on the export of crude oil. In fact, ninety percent of the Nigeria's foreign income is acquired through oil export. The financial benefits of Nigeria's oil and gas exploitation and productions are undoubtable. However, the consequential impact the activities of the oil industry to the environment cannot be discoun

              Nigeria is an oil exporting nation. The economy of the nation is entirely dependable on the export of crude oil. In fact, ninety percent of the Nigeria's foreign income is acquired through oil export. The financial benefits of Nigeria's oil and gas exploitation and productions are undoubtable. However, the consequential impact the activities of the oil industry to the environment cannot be discoun

Environment Essay Law Essay 

Class 14 (College)

Ocean Dumping & Marine Pollution


Words: 1120    Pages: 4    Paragraphs: 14    Sentences: 98    Read Time: 04:04The practice of ocean dumping should be banned. Marine pollution is at the heart of interest in today's search for a clean environment. Not only does ocean dumping add to the unsightliness of the once beautiful and pristine waters; it also kills the marine life which inhabits those waters. Pollution on a grand-scale is wreaking havoc on the Earth. The ocean is not an exception. In 1996, a bill,

              The practice of ocean dumping should be banned. Marine pollution is at the heart of interest in today's search for a clean environment. Not only does ocean dumping add to the unsightliness of the once beautiful and pristine waters; it also kills the marine life which inhabits those waters. Pollution on a grand-scale is wreaking havoc on the Earth. The ocean is not an exception.
             
              In 1996, a bill,

Class 8 (Middle School)

Water Pollution Needs To Be Stopped Essay


Words: 715    Pages: 3    Paragraphs: 11    Sentences: 47    Read Time: 02:36Water pollution needs to be stopped. Pollution of lakes rivers, streams, and oceans has been killing land and water animals for years. Polluting water is a horrible act and will be stopped. Water pollution kills all kinds of animals every year. Just the EXXON VALDEZ oil spill near anchorage Alaska caused over 3,000 otters to die 36,000 different kinds of seabirds were killed and over 100 eagles

              Water pollution needs to be stopped. Pollution of lakes rivers, streams, and oceans has been killing land and water animals for years. Polluting water is a horrible act and will be stopped.
             
              Water pollution kills all kinds of animals every year. Just the EXXON VALDEZ oil spill near anchorage Alaska caused over 3,000 otters to die 36,000 different kinds of seabirds were killed and over 100 eagles

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Class 9 (High School)

Pollution Is A Bane For Society


Words: 408    Pages: 1    Paragraphs: 7    Sentences: 35    Read Time: 01:29Pollution is a bane for society or life. All sorts of pollution like air pollution, water pollution, sound pollution, noise pollution, food pollution have been affecting greatly the dwellers. The sources or origins of pollution are described in short details: Air Pollution: Air is one of the most important elements of our environment for our survival. It is a natural gift and a free asset

              Pollution is a bane for society or life. All sorts of pollution like air pollution, water pollution, sound pollution, noise pollution, food pollution have been affecting greatly the dwellers.
             
              The sources or origins of pollution are described in short details:
             
              Air Pollution:
             
              Air is one of the most important elements of our environment for our survival. It is a natural gift and a free asset

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Class 8 (Middle School)

Essay On Methods Used To Control Air Pollution


Words: 370    Pages: 1    Paragraphs: 8    Sentences: 17    Read Time: 01:20Most kinds of air pollution can be controlled by modern technology, but the costs ultimately be borne by the public in the form of higher prices for manufactured goods, higher taxes, reduced profit margins in industry, and more restrictions on individual activities such as burning leaves and trash and use of automobiles. The benefits involve not only improved environmental quality, but improved he

              Most kinds of air pollution can be controlled by modern technology, but the costs ultimately be borne by the public in the form of higher prices for manufactured goods, higher taxes, reduced profit margins in industry, and more restrictions on individual activities such as burning leaves and trash and use of automobiles. The benefits involve not only improved environmental quality, but improved he

Class 15 (College)

Essay For Kids On Pollutants


Words: 279    Pages: 1    Paragraphs: 5    Sentences: 26    Read Time: 01:00Every human society, be it rural, urban, industrial and most technologically advanced society, dispose of certain kinds of by-products and waste products which when are injected into the biosphere in quantities so great that they affect the normal functioning of ecosystems and have an adverse effect on plants, animals, and man are collectively called pollutants (Smith, 1977). Certain common pol

              Every human society, be it rural, urban, industrial and most technologically advanced society, dispose of certain kinds of by-products and waste products which when are injected into the biosphere in quantities so great that they affect the normal functioning of ecosystems and have an adverse effect on plants, animals, and man are collectively called pollutants (Smith, 1977).
             
              Certain common pol

Class 13 (College)

Types, Kinds And Sources Of Water Pollution


Words: 296    Pages: 1    Paragraphs: 6    Sentences: 12    Read Time: 01:04Types of water pollution may be classified by the medium in which they occur, such as surface water pollution, ground water pollution, soil water pollution, etc.; the habitat in which they occur, such as river pollution, lake pollution, estuarine pollution, coastal water pollution, open ocean pollution, etc.; and source or type of contamination, such as nutrient pollution, bacterial pollution, vir

              Types of water pollution may be classified by the medium in which they occur, such as surface water pollution, ground water pollution, soil water pollution, etc.; the habitat in which they occur, such as river pollution, lake pollution, estuarine pollution, coastal water pollution, open ocean pollution, etc.; and source or type of contamination, such as nutrient pollution, bacterial pollution, vir

Agriculture Essay 

Class 20 (College)

Short Essay On Radioactive Pollution


Words: 187    Pages: 1    Paragraphs: 4    Sentences: 8    Read Time: 00:40Radioactive isotopes, or radionuclide's, are forms of elements with unstable atomic nuclei; that is, they decompose with ionizing radiation in the form of alpha or beta particles, or gamma rays. Many radioisotopes, such as radium-226, uranium-235 or 238, thorium-232, potassium-40, or carbon-I4, occur naturally in rocks and soil. Other radioisotopes such as those of cesium, cobalt, iodine, krypt

              Radioactive isotopes, or radionuclide's, are forms of elements with unstable atomic nuclei; that is, they decompose with ionizing radiation in the form of alpha or beta particles, or gamma rays. Many radioisotopes, such as radium-226, uranium-235 or 238, thorium-232, potassium-40, or carbon-I4, occur naturally in rocks and soil.
             
              Other radioisotopes such as those of cesium, cobalt, iodine, krypt

Class 16 (College)

Essay On The Major Kinds And Sources Of Air Pollutants


Words: 411    Pages: 1    Paragraphs: 8    Sentences: 20    Read Time: 01:29A major source of air pollution is the particulate and gaseous matter released by the burning of fossil fuels such as coal petroleum, etc. Out of this comes a variety of emissions: (1) Fine particles (less than 100 in diameter), which include carbon particles, metallic dusts, tars, resins, aerosols, solid oxides, nitrates, and sulfates; (2) Coarser particles (over 200/m), largely carbon p

              A major source of air pollution is the particulate and gaseous matter released by the burning of fossil fuels such as coal petroleum, etc.
             
              Out of this comes a variety of emissions:
             
              (1) Fine particles (less than 100 in diameter), which include carbon particles, metallic dusts, tars, resins, aerosols, solid oxides, nitrates, and sulfates;
             
              (2) Coarser particles (over 200/m), largely carbon p

Class 15 (College)

The Effects Of Noise Pollution


Words: 421    Pages: 2    Paragraphs: 8    Sentences: 20    Read Time: 01:31Noise is primarily a feature of cities, as exemplified by J. Caesar's action in banning chariots from the streets of Rome by day, thus producing insomnia by night. Noise is defined as 'sound without value' or' any noise that is undesired by the recipient'. Noise levels in many urban-industrialized situations are known to be deleterious to human health and efficiency, with effects on the sense o

              Noise is primarily a feature of cities, as exemplified by J. Caesar's action in banning chariots from the streets of Rome by day, thus producing insomnia by night. Noise is defined as 'sound without value' or' any noise that is undesired by the recipient'.
             
              Noise levels in many urban-industrialized situations are known to be deleterious to human health and efficiency, with effects on the sense o

Class 13 (College)

Short Essay On Land Pollution


Words: 300    Pages: 1    Paragraphs: 5    Sentences: 13    Read Time: 01:05The land pollution is caused by solid wastes and chemicals. One of the major pollution problems of large cities is disposal of solid waste material including farm and animal manure, crop residues (agricultural wastes), industrial wastes such as chemicals, fly ash and cinders which are residues of combustion of solid fuels, garbage, paper, cardboard, plastics, rubber, cloth, leather, construction r

              The land pollution is caused by solid wastes and chemicals. One of the major pollution problems of large cities is disposal of solid waste material including farm and animal manure, crop residues (agricultural wastes), industrial wastes such as chemicals, fly ash and cinders which are residues of combustion of solid fuels, garbage, paper, cardboard, plastics, rubber, cloth, leather, construction r

Class 14 (College)

The Impact Of Electronic Waste On Our Environment


Words: 712    Pages: 3    Paragraphs: 18    Sentences: 40    Read Time: 02:35Technical scenario of the globe is changing very fast. The consumption of electronic items has been immensely increased and is still increasing at a very high rate in every field of life. E-Waste is the term used to describe old, end-of-life or discarded appliances using electricity. It includes computers, consumer electronics, fridges etc. which have been disposed of by their original users.

              Technical scenario of the globe is changing very fast. The consumption of electronic items has been immensely increased and is still increasing at a very high rate in every field of life.
             
              E-Waste is the term used to describe old, end-of-life or discarded appliances using electricity. It includes computers, consumer electronics, fridges etc. which have been disposed of by their original users.
             

Environment Essay 

Class 14 (College)

Oil And The Environment


Words: 331    Pages: 1    Paragraphs: 7    Sentences: 17    Read Time: 01:12Products from oil (petroleum products) help us do many things. We use them to fuel our airplanes, cars, and trucks, to heat our homes, and to make products like medicines and plastics. Even though petroleum products make life easier finding, producing, moving, and using them can cause problems for our environment like air and water pollution. Over the years, new technologies and laws have helpe

              Products from oil (petroleum products) help us do many things. We use them to fuel our airplanes, cars, and trucks, to heat our homes, and to make products like medicines and plastics.
             
              Even though petroleum products make life easier finding, producing, moving, and using them can cause problems for our environment like air and water pollution. Over the years, new technologies and laws have helpe

Environment Essay 

Class 11 (High School)

Green House Effect And Ozone Depletion


Words: 609    Pages: 2    Paragraphs: 13    Sentences: 34    Read Time: 02:12There are two more important hazards which are posing challenges to future existence of our civilization are Green House Effect and Ozone Depletion. Green House Effect: This is a phenomenon characterized by warming of the Earth's atmosphere resulting from absorption of infrared radiation from atmospheric constituents. Radiant energy arrives through sunlight, which is remitted by the surface

              There are two more important hazards which are posing challenges to future existence of our civilization are Green House Effect and Ozone Depletion.
             
              Green House Effect:
             
              This is a phenomenon characterized by warming of the Earth's atmosphere resulting from absorption of infrared radiation from atmospheric constituents. Radiant energy arrives through sunlight, which is remitted by the surface

Environment Essay 

Class 13 (College)

Industrial Pollution: Types, Effects and Control of Industrial Pollution!

In order to provide daily needs of the growing population, differ­ent types of industries are setup to produce different products. The industries use raw materials, process them and produce fin­ished products. Besides the finished products, a good number of by-products are produced. Out of all the by-products, if some are in huge quantities and the processing is cost effective, the indus­trialist preserves the by- products.

If the processing of waste is a cost prohibitive one, then the industrialist throws the waste into the environment in the form of gas, liquid or solid. The gases are usually released into the atmosphere, the liquids are discharged into aquatic bodies like canals, rivers or sea and solid wastes are either dumped on the land or in aquatic bodies. In all the cases, either the air or water or land is polluted due to dumping of wastes.

Till now, there are about 17 industries which are declared to be most polluting. These include the caustic soda, cement, dis­tillery, dyes and dye intermediaries, fertilisers, iron and steel, oil refineries, paper and pulp, pesticides and pharmaceuticals, sugar, textiles, thermal power plants, tanneries and so on. The table 6.5 enlists few of the industries, their wastes (important) and the type of pollution these induce in the environment.

The wide variety of pollutants as shown above enter the envi­ronment and disturb the natural eco-system affecting the biota. Due to industrial activities, a variety of poisonous gases like NO, SO2, NO2, SO3, Cl2, CO, CO2, H2SO4 etc.- volatile chemicals, dusts etc., are liberated into the atmosphere causing acute pollution problem. Besides, the accidental leakage of poisonous gases can cause havoc.

For example, Methyl Isocyanate gas leakage from Union Carbide factory at Bhopal caused mass killing which is known as Bhopal gas tragedy. In addition to accidents, many of the above poisonous gases induce depletion of ozone layer, crea­tion of ozone hole. Green House effect, Global warming. Acid rain, destruction of monument and killing of living organisms disturbing the natural eco-systems.

Table 6.5

 

Industry

Wastes Produced

Type of Pollution

1.

Caustic Soda

Mercury, Chlorine gas

Air, water and land

2.

Cement dust, smoke

Particulate matter

3.

Distillery

Organic waste

Land and water

4.

Fertiliser

Ammonia, cyanide,

 
  

oxides of nitrogen,

Air and water

  

oxides of sulphur

 

5.

Dye

Inorganic waste pigment

Land and water

6.

Iron and steel

Smoke, gases, coal dust, fly ash, fluorine

Air, water and land

7.

Pesticides

Organic and inorganic

Water and land

  

waste

 

8.

Oil Refineries

Smoke, toxic gases, organic waste

Air and water

9.

Paper and Pulp

Smoke, organic waste

Air and water

10.

Sugar

Organic waste, molasses

Land and water

11.

Textiles

Smoke, particulate matter

Land and water

12.

Tanneries

Organic waste

Water

13.

Thermal power

Fly ash, SO2 gas

Air and water

14.

Nuclear power station

Radioactive wastes

Water and land

15.

Food processing

Alkalies, phenols chromates, organic wastes

Water and land

The nature of the industrial waste depends upon the industrial process in which these originate and the raw materials the use.

Broadly the industrial wastes may be divided into two groups:

(a) Process waste;

(b) Chemical waste.

(A) Process Waste:

The waste generated in an industry during washing and processing of raw materials is known as process waste. The proc­ess waste may be organic or inorganic in nature depending upon the raw materials used and nature of the industry.

The organic process wastes are liberated from food processing units, distiller­ies, breweries, paper and pulp industry, sugar mills etc. The inor­ganic process wastes may be the effluents of chemical industries; caustic soda industry, paint industry, petroleum industry, pesti­cide industry etc. Both organic and inorganic process wastes are toxic to living organisms.

The solid wastes released by different industries can be di­vided in to two different groups i.e.

(a) process wastes, and

(b) packing wastes.

Since different industries use different raw materials, the qual­ity and quantity of solid wastes differ from industry to industry. Industries releasing the solid wastes in the form of fly ash is dumped on the ground which leads to soil pollution.

Some amount of fly ash also contaminate atmospheric tract causing respiratory tract disorders. Metallic industries produce a lot of solid metallic waste and large quantities of slag. In addition to the re­lease of hazardous chemical pollutants, the industries may also cause thermal pollution and noise pollution. The thermal pollution is due to release of hot water from indus­tries into aquatic bodies. The noise pollution is due to running of heavy machinery producing a lot of noise.

(B) Chemical Wastes:

The chemical substance generated as a by-product during the preparation of a product is known as chemical waste product. The chemical waste include heavy metals and their ions, deter­gents, acids and alkalies and various other toxic substances.

These are usually produced by the industries like fertiliser factories, paper and pulp industries, iron and steel industries, distilleries, sugar mills etc. These are usually liberated into nearby water bodies like rivers, lakes and seas and sometimes into lands. The entry of these chemicals into bodies may alter the pH, BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand) and COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand).

The loading of suspended solids (ss), heavy metals and their ions brings about a drastic change in physiochemical nature of the water. The aquatic animals and plants absorb, accumulate and bio-concentrate the chemical wastes leading to bio magnifications and finally destroying the trophic levels and food chains of the eco-system. Hence these disturb the eco-system dynamics and eco-system balance of the nature.

Effects of Industrial Pollution:

1. On human health:

(i) It causes irritation of eye, nose, throat respiratory tracts, etc.

(ii) It increases mortality rate and morbidity rate.

(iii) A variety of particulates mainly pollens, initiate asthmatic attacks.

(iv) Chronic pulmonary diseases like bronchitis and asthma are aggravated by high concentration of SO2, NO2, particulate matter and photo-chemical smog.

(v) Certain heavy metals like lead may enter the body through lungs and cause poisoning.

2. On animal health:

In case of animals, the pollutants enter in two steps.

(i) Accumulation of the airborne contaminants in the vegeta­tion forage and prey animals.

(ii) Subsequent poisoning of the animals when they eat the contaminated food. In case of animals, three pollutants namely fluorine, arsenic and lead are responsible for most livestock dam­age.

3. On plants:

Industrial pollution have been shown to have serious adverse effects on plants. In some cases, it is found that vegetation over 150 Km. away from the source of pollutants have been found to be affected. The major pollutants affecting plants are SO2, O3, MO, NO2, NH3, HCN, Ethylene, Herbicides, PAN (Peroxy Acetyl ni­trate) etc. In the presence of pollutants, the healthy plants suffer from neurosis, chlorosis, abscission, epinasty etc.

Control of Industrial Pollution:

The ultimate object behind the measures to control pollution to maintain safety of Man, Material and Machinery (Three Ms). The implementation of control measures should be based on the prin­ciple of recovery or recycling of the pollutants and must be taken as an integral part of production i.e. never as a liability but always an asset.

Some important control measures are:

1. Control at Source:

It involves suitable alterations in the choice of raw materials and process in treatment of exhaust gases before finally discharged and increasing stock height upto 38 metres in order to ensure proper mixing of the discharged pollut­ants.

2. Selection of Industry Site:

The industrial site should be properly examined considering the climatic and topographical characteristics before setting of the industry.

3. Treatment of Industrial Waste:

The industrial wastes should be subjected to proper treatment before their discharge.

4. Plantation:

Intensive plantation in the region, considerably reduces the dust, smoke and other pollutants.

5. Stringent Government Action:

Government should take strin­gent action against industries which discharge higher amount of pollutants into the environment than the level prescribed by Pollu­tion Control Board.

6. Assessment of the Environmental Impacts:

Environmental impact assessment should be carried out regularly which intends to identify and evaluate the potential and harmful impacts of the industries on natural eco-system.

7. Strict Implementation of Environmental Protection Act:

Environment Protection Act should be strictly followed and the destroyer of the environment should be strictly punished.

Biological Concentration and Bio-Magnification:

A pollutant present in the environment makes its entry into the food chain by the producers. After the entry, these get accumulated in their cells and tissues. The primary consumers when feed upon the producers, the pollutants deposited in the body of the former are transferred into the body of the primary consumer. In addition, the primary consumer may also directly absorb some amount of pollutants from the environment.

This leads to an increase in the concentration of the pollutant in the body of the primary consumer. Again the primary consumer, is consumed by a secondary consumer and the pollutants from the body of the former are transferred into the body of latter where these get deposited.

Thus, on moving along the food chain, it is seen that concentration of the pollutants become more in the tissues of the organisms belonging to higher trophic level than the organisms belonging to lower trophic level. Hence the residual retention of the pollutants is the richest at the higher trophic level.

From the above discussion, it is clear that the pollutants get magnified to a significant level because of the food chain link up- Such type of magnification of the pollutants in a food chain, mediated by biological agents (members of different trophic levels) is known as biological magnification or bio-magnification of pollutant in eco-system. Since man is omnivorous and can have access to different trophic levels of a food chain, he receives the pollutants in large amounts which become deposited in the various tissues.

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