1. National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. From Neurons to Neighbourhoods: The Science of Early Child Development. National Academy Press; Washington: 2000. Executive Summary.
2. Hertzman C, Kershaw P, Irwin L, Trafford K, Wiens M. Human Early Learning Partnership. Vaudreuil: Apr 26 to 28, 2006. Seven uses of the EDI: The Case of British Columbia. [Colloquium presentation]
3. Canadian Council on Social Development. The Progress of Canada’s Children and Youth 2006. Ottawa: Apr, 2006.
4. Liu J, Kerr D, Beaujot R. Children and youth in Canada: Recent demographic changes. Discussion paper no. 06–07. < http://sociology.uwo.ca/popstudies/dp/dp06-07.pdf> (Version current at September 12, 2007)
5. Campaign 2000. Oh Canada! Too many children in poverty for too long...2006 report card on child and family poverty in Canada. < http://www.campaign2000.ca/rc/rc06/06_C2000NationalReportCard.pdf> (Version current at September 18, 2007)
6. Lethbridge LN, Phipps SA. Chronic poverty and childhood asthma in the Maritimes versus the rest of Canada. Can J Public Health. 2005;96:18–23.[PubMed]
7. Offord DR, Lipman EL. Emotional and behavioural problems. In: Human Resources Development Canada, Statistics Canada, editor. Growing up in Canada: National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Ottawa: Statistics Canada; 1996. pp. 119–126.
8. Ostry A. Vancouver: Department of Health Care and Epidemiology, University of British Columbia; 2000. Globalization, Labour Markets, and Health in Developed Nations.
9. UNICEF. Florence: UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre; 2007. Child poverty in perspective: An overview of child well-being in rich countries.
10. Ontario Public Health Association. Towards a Public Health Approach to Reducing Child Poverty and Enhancing Resiliency. < http://www.opha.on.ca/ppres/1998-01_ppres.pdf> (Version current at September 24, 2007)
11. Devarajan S, Miller MJ, Swanson EV. Goals for development: History, prospects and costs. Policy research working paper 2819. < http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2002/04/26/000094946_02041804272578/Rendered/PDF/multi0page.pdf> (Version current at September 25, 2007)
12. Wilkins R, Houle C, Berthelot JM, Ross N. The changing health status of Canada’s children. ISUMA Can J Policy Res. 2000;1:57–63.
13. Hack M, Klein NK, Taylor HG. Long-term developmental outcomes of low birth weight infants. Future Child. 1995;5:176–96.[PubMed]
14. Luo ZC, Wilkins R, Kramer MS. Effect of neighbourhood income and maternal education on birth outcomes: A population-based study. CMAJ. 2006;174:1415–20.[PMC free article][PubMed]
15. Luo ZC, Kierans WJ, Wilkins R, et al. Disparities in birth outcomes by neighborhood income: Temporal trends in rural and urban areas, British Columbia. Epidemiology. 2004;15:679–86.[PubMed]
16. Shah P, Ohlsson A. Evidence Based Neonatal Care and Outcomes Research. Department of Pediatrics, Mount Sinai Hospital. Toronto: Toronto Public Health; 2002. Literature review of low birth weight, including small for gestational age and preterm birth.
17. Canadian Institute for Health Information, Canadian Lung Association, Health Canada, Statistics Canada. Respiratory Disease in Canada. OttawaHealth; Canada: 2001.
18. Blais L, Beauchesne MF, Levesque S. Socioeconomic status and medication prescription patterns in pediatric asthma in Canada. J Adolesc Health. 2006;38:607.e9–16.[PubMed]
19. Kozyrskyj AL, Hildes-Ripstein GE. Assessing health status in Manitoba children: Acute and chronic conditions. Can J Public Health. 2002;93(Suppl 2):s44–9.[PubMed]
20. Human Resources Development Canada, Health Canada. Ottawa: 2003. The well-being of Canada’s young children: Government of Canada report.
21. Willms JD. Early childhood obesity: A call for early surveillance and preventive measures. CMAJ. 2004;171:243–4.[PMC free article][PubMed]
22. Statistics Canada. The Daily: National longitudinal survey of children and youth: Childhood obesity. < http://www.statcan.ca/Daily/English/021018/d021018b.htm> (Version current at September 12, 2007)
23. Oliver LN, Hayes MV. Neighbourhood socio-economic status and the prevalence of overweight Canadian children and youth. Can J Public Health. 2005;96:415–20.[PubMed]
24. Pan SY, Ugnat AM, Semenciew R, Desmeules M, Mao Y, MacLeod M. Trends in childhood mortality in Canada, 1979–2002. Inj Prev. 2006;12:155–60.[PMC free article][PubMed]
25. Public Health Agency of Canada. Leading causes of death and hospitalization in Canada in 1997. < http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/lcd-pcd97/pdf/hos_mrt_e.pdf> (Version current at September 25, 2007)
26. SmartRisk. Ending Canada’s invisible epidemic: A strategy for injury prevention. < http://www.injurypreventionstrategy.ca/downloads/NS-Eng.pdf> (Version current at September 25, 2007)
27. Birken CS, Macarthur C. Socioeconomic status and injury risk in children. Paediatr Child Health. 2004;9:323–5.[PMC free article][PubMed]
28. Macpherson AK, Schull M, Manuel D, Cernat G, Redelmeier DA, Laupacis A. Chapter 1: General description of injuries in Ontario. Injuries in Ontario. ICES Atlas. < http://www.ices.on.ca/file/injuries_chp1_final.pdf> (Version current at September 25, 2007)
29. Brownell M, Friesen D, Mayer T. Childhood injury rates in Manitoba: Socioeconomic influences. Can J Public Health. 2002;93(Suppl 2):s50–s56.[PubMed]
30. Soubhi H. The social context of childhood injury in Canada: Integration of the NLSCY findings. Am J Health Behav. 2004;28(Suppl 1):S38–S50.[PubMed]
31. MacKay M, Reid DC, Moher D, Klassen T. Systematic review of the relationship between childhood injury and socio-economic status. < http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/dca-dea/publications/pdf/injury_e.pdf> (Version current at September 12, 2007)
32. Scholer SJ, Hickson GB, Mitchel EF, Jr, Ray WA. Predictors of mortality from fires in young children. Pediatrics. 1998;101:E12.[PubMed]
33. Soubhi H, Raina P, Kohen D. Effects of neighbourhood, family, and child behaviour on childhood injury in Canada. < http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/pkrf/publications/research/2001-000067/iw-01-1-6e.pdf> (Version current at September 12, 2007)
34. Thomas H, Boyle M. Improving the mental health of young children in Toronto: Needs assessment and literature review. Toronto: Toronto Public Health; 2002.
35. Ross DP, Roberts P. Income and child well-being: A new perspective on the poverty debate. < http://www.ccsd.ca/pubs/inckids/outcomes.htm> (Version current at September 12, 2007)
36. Tremblay RE, Boulerice B, Harden PW, et al. Do children in Canada become more aggressive as they approach adolescence? In: Human Resources Development Canada, Statistics Canada, editor. Growing up in Canada: National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Ottawa: Statistics Canada; 1995. pp. 127–138.
37. Adams GR, Ryan BA. Applied Research Branch, Human Resources Development Canada. A longitudinal analysis of family relationships and children’s school achievement in one- and two-parent families – June 2000. < http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/pkrf/publications/research/2000-000180/page00.shtml> (Version current at September 13, 2007)
38. Ross D, Roberts P, Scott K. Family income and child well-being. ISUMA Canadian Journal of Policy Research. 2000;1:51–4.
39. Maag E. Unmet Service Needs of Children with Disabilities. 2000.
40. Guo G, Brooks-Gunn J, Harris KM. Parental labor force attachment and grade retention among urban black children. Sociol Educ. 1996;69:217–36.
41. Kerkshaw P, Irwin L, Trafford K, Hertzman C. Human Early Learning Partnership. 1st edn. Victoria: 2005. The British Columbia Atlas of Child Development.
42. Human Resources Development Canada. Understanding the early years: Early childhood development in Winnipeg (School Division No 1) < http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/pkrf/publications/nlscy/uey/community/2001-000069/winnipeg-english.pdf> (Version current at September 25, 2007)
43. Toronto Data Analysis Coordinators, Mothercraft. Early Development Instrument (EDI) 2005/06 Toronto Results. < http://www.torontodacs.net/uploads/docs/2005-06%20Toronto%20EDI%20Report%20Jan.2007.pdf> (Version current at September 13, 2007)
44. Hertzman C, McLean SA, Kohen DE, Dunn J, Evans T. Human Early Learning Partnership. Early development in Vancouver: Report of the community asset mapping project (CAMP) < http://secure.cihi.ca/cihiweb/products/ecd_van_e.pdf> (Version current at September 25, 2007)
45. De Civita M, Pagani LS, Vitaro F, Tremblay RE. Does maternal supervision mediate the impact of income source on behavioral adjustment in children from persistently poor families? J Early Adolesc. 2007;27:40–66.
46. Smith JR, Brooks-Gunn J, Klebanov PK. Consequences of living in poverty for young children’s cognitive and verbal ability and early school achievement. In: Duncan GJ, Brooks-Gunn J, editors. Consequences of Growing Up Poor. New York: Russell Sage Foundation; 1997. pp. 132–89.
47. Thomas EM Statistics Canada. Children and youth research paper series: Readiness to learn at school among five-year-old children in Canada. Catalogue no. 89–599-MIE. No. 004. < http://www.statcan.ca/english/research/89-599-MIE/89-599-MIE2006004.pdf> (Version current at September 13, 2007)
48. Graham H, Power C. Health Development Agency. Childhood disadvantage and adult health: A lifecourse framework. < http://nice.org.uk/page.aspx?o=507885> (Version current at September 13, 2007)
49. Kuh D, Hardy R, Langenberg C, Richards M, Wadsworth ME. Mortality in adults aged 26–54 years related to socioeconomic conditions in childhood and adulthood: Post war birth cohort study. BMJ. 2002;325:1076–80.[PMC free article][PubMed]
50. Power C, Hertzman C, Mathews S, Manor O. Social differences in health: Life cycle effects between ages 23 and 33 in the 1958 British birth cohort. Am J Public Health. 1997;87:1499–503.[PMC free article][PubMed]
51. Brooks-Gunn J, Duncan GJ, Britto PR. Are socioeconomic gradients for children similar to those of adults? Achievements and health of children in the United States. In: Keating DP, Hertzman C, editors. Developmental Health and the Wealth of Nations: Social, Biological, and Educational Dynamics. New York: The Guilford Press; 1999. pp. 94–124.
52. Alderman H, Behrman JR. Washington: The World Bank: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development; 2004. Estimated economic benefits of reducing low birth weight in low-income countries. HNP Discussion Paper.
53. Ontario Public Health Association. Public health responds to the challenge to reduce poverty and enhance resiliency in children and youth. < http://www.opha.on.ca/ppres/2004-05_pp.pdf> (Version current at September 13, 2007)
54. Ross DP Canadian Institute for Health Information. Policy approaches to address the impact of poverty on health – A scan of policy literature. Poverty and Health. CPHI Collected Papers. < http://www.cihi.ca/cihiweb/dispPage.jsp?cw_page=GR_323_E> (Version current at September 13, 2007)
55. Toronto Public Health. Impact of poverty on children’s current and future health: Board of Health Report. Sep 14, 2006. < http://www.toronto.ca/legdocs/2006/agendas/committees/hl/hl060914/it001.pdf> (Version current at August 28, 2006)
56. Human Resources Development Canada, Health Canada. The well-being of Canada’s young children: Government of Canada report. < http://188.8.131.52/ecd/2002/reportb-e.pdf> (Version current at September 13, 2007)
Healthy food essay Too much weight, obesity, skinniness, on the other hand, is those pressures that trouble every American since they include certain abnormalities... a huge majority (83%) of the public blames the increase on not enough exercise, and only 34 percent of surveyed Americans chose caloric consumption as a major reason why obesity has increased.
Child Obesity Essay The main causes of obesity are: the decreased level of nutrients intake, and sedentary lifestyle.For example, the intake of fast food meals tripled between 1977 and 1995, and calorie level magnified four times during the same period. Nevertheless, it is insufficient explanation of phenomenal rise in the obesity levels in the well-developed countries. Overall, obesity is a significant health and social problem, which has reached pandemic levels.
Obesity essay Obesity is a disease connected to improper nutrition in a way that the amount of the fatty tissue of the body stored from the food taken starts being completely unhealthy. Doctors start talking about obesity when the body mass index is over thirty kilograms for a square meter. It is usually common when the amount of food exceeds the amount of corresponding exercises.Obesity is a diet-related chronic disease, which requires a longtime medic treatment in order to decrease the frequency of accompanying diseases and death rate. In other words obesity is “accumulation” of fat in the organism, which leads to the increase of the surplus mass of the body by 20% and more compared to the average normal body mass value (“ideal” mass of body).
Essay on obesity: healthy Food vs fast food essay ... health problems linked to obesity, like hypertension and diabetes, are more widespread among people with low income. Each year about $70 billion is spent on health-care due to obesity. Obesity, the condition of an abnormal accumulation of body fat, has a negative effect on different body systems (psychological, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, renal, musculoskeletal, neurological, cardiovascular, and endocrine). Solving the obesity problem can save health care money which could be used for improvement of the living conditions of low income citizenz by paying for housing or college education, for