Ba Modern Essays Notes



This is satirical essay in which the anonymous writer makes fun of the excessive use of the word ‘Super’. Actually, ‘super’ is a ‘suffix’ that is commonly used before many words to prove that the particular item contains the super qualities but the irony of the situation is that these particular items lack the super qualities. This ironic situation produces humor and laughter.

First time used

This word first time was used by George Bernard Shaw; he talked about ‘Superman’ after Nietzsche. After that this word was being used frequently.

The word ‘Super’ means something of superior quality. Today we use this word often before every product to prove it as having super quality; super chocolate, super soap, super cigarettes etc. Due to the excessive use of the word super, it has lost its real meanings.


In the ancient times, the titles were given to the men who had certain qualities and they were lords, peers and counts. During the age of Renaissance noblemen were proud to show themselves off as Caesar Borgia, tried to be a superman. Nowadays, we do not claim ourselves as supermen. But we are pleased to call our products and things as super products and super things.

Message of the essay

Instead of using this word ‘super’ , we should try to increase the quality of the things.


two years of its publication it was awarded Nobel Prize.

is nothing.

know of the philosophy of Hemingway. If we understand

The central philosophy of the novel is that ," A man
is not made for defeat.A man can be destroyed
but not defeated. "
If one goes through the novel from the very first word
till the very last word, the whole novel prove this philosophy
of Hemingway. The old man is determined to achieve his goal
but the hostile forces of nature try to destroy the old man but
but he is not ready to be defeated.
To achieve any thing is not success. The real success is continuous
struggle. If one compares this statement to the ending
of the novel that is much controversial, one can say that the ending
is quite justified.As per this philosophy Santiago is highly successful.

The Old Man and the Sea

    Story in brief

The protagonist of the novel was 85 years of age.

Santiago was a determined and a resolute fellow.

He was going for fishing for the last 84 days but without any success.

Every day was a new day for him, he was an optimistic fellow.

He was the victim of severe loneliness. He had no child and his wife had also died long ago.

Manoline, a guy of 14, the only helper and friend of Santiago, left to work with Old man, on the order of his parents.

Now old man was at the mercy of the cruel waves of the sea.

He hooked a big fish; Marline but there stated a never ending chain of miseries.

He fought bravely with the fish and ultimately killed it.

On his way back to home, the hungry and bloody sharks attacked on the fish repeatedly and reduced the marline into a skeleton.

When he reached at the shore people in a mocking mood asked his next plan

, the old man replied that next morning he would go again for fishing and this time he would catch big a bigger one.

“The man is not made for defeat. A man can be destroyed but not defeated.”



                            Major characters of the novel


He is the central figure of the novel. He is the severe victim of the loneliness. He  lives in a small cottage near the shore. He goes without fishing for the last 85 days but he does not lose heart. On 86 day , he catches a big fish , Marlin but at the end is de[rived of the fruit of his life by the cruel attacks  of the sharks


He is  a young boy who is the only pupil and friend of the old man at the sea. First forty days , he accompanies the old man but after forty days, his parents shift him to another boat saying that the old man is a Salao. But he still loves and respect the old man  and helps him. He is very attached to the old man. He brings food for him, have gossip with him and encourages the old man.
Marlin, the Fish
It is a very huge fish caught by the old man. It gives very tough time to the old man. It pulls the old man along with his skiff for three days and nights. It is 18 fat long and has purple strips on the body. At the end it is eaten away by the sharks


In the novel , sharks represent the hostile forces of the nature. They attack the fish one by one first and in the  packs later on. They deprive the old man  of the fruit of his long efforts. Old man kill some of them but as thy were large in numbers, so they defeated the old man outwardly.


Sear plays a  very important role in the progress f the novel. Hemingway has treated the sea as  a living being. It  is very kind and provides subsistence to the human. But  sometimes, it become very cruel and harsh. The importance of its role  cannot be denied.

How to translate Urdu passages into English

Describe the themes of the novel, “The Old Man and  the Sea”?

“The Old Man and  the Sea” is an very interesting novel by Ernest Hemingway. In its main outline the story is quite simple. Some of us may think that the story is nothing because it ends at the failure of the old man..But this is not the correct approach to the novel. The story leaves an ever lasting impression on the readers. The struggle of the old man from the beginning till the end is the real charm of the novel.

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